This paper describes Naiad distributed computation system. Naiad uses dataflow model to represent the computations, but it aims to be a general dataflow framework in contrast to other specialized approaches such as TensorFlow. Similarly to other dataflow systems, the computations are represented as graphs, where vertices represent data and operations and edges carry the data between nodes.
Naiad was designed as the generic framework to support iterative and incremental computations with the dataflow model. We can think of an iterative computation as some function Op is executed repeatedly. Such iteration function can be looped on its output until there are no changes between the input and the output and the function converges to a fixed point.
Incremental computations are a bit more general then the iterative. In incremental processing, we start with initial input A0 and produce some output B0. At some later point, we have a change δA1 to the original input A0, such that we can have new input A1 = A0 + δA1. Incremental model produces an incremental update to the output, so δB1 = Op(δA1) and B1 = δB1 + B0. Note that incremental model only needs to have previous state (i.e. A0 and B0) to compute the next state, however we can extend it to have all output differences:. Incremental computations can be adopted for iterative algorithms where each iteration produces the difference output and next iteration operates only on that difference and not the full input. However with basic incremental computation approach it becomes impossible to do iterative operations under the changing or streaming input, as now we need to keep track not only of the iteration number (and differences between iterations), but also on the version of the input (and differences of the input).
Differential computation model overcomes the limitation of basic Iterative and Incremental approaches, by keeping all the differences δB and δA, and not just the previous state. In addition, a two-component timestamp is now used, where one component keeps track of the input version and the second value is responsible for the iteration number. Such timestamping for differences complicates the computation, as the timestamps no longer have a total order. In other words, sometimes it is not possible to tell whether one timestamp happened before another. However, the new timestamp system has a partial order for which . And under this partial order it is still possible to sum the differences together:
With differential model, we can calculate not only the end result of an operation when the new input comes in, but also any intermediate δBt. A lot of the power of differential dataflow lies with the differential operator that must produces the differences that can be summed with the equation above.
The timestamp plays a crucial role in tracking execution progress. Naiad’s communication methods Send and OnRecv can be triggered multiple time for the same variable, making it necessary to have a mechanism capable of notifying other nodes when certain data has been sent in full. This notification triggers when all messages at or before a particular timestamp have been sent. Upon receiving a notification on a node, OnNotify(t) method is called, allowing the algorithm to react. Dataflow model complicates the notification mechanism, since the timestamps no longer have a total order, however the partial-order we have established earlier along with some dataflow graph restrictions allow Naiad to keep the effective notification system that does not break its guarantees even under nested loops and continuous input updates.
Lots of modern distributed systems are built with Java programming language, and consequently use Java Virtual Machine (JVM) as their execution environment. The list of such systems is rather large: Hadoop, Spark, HBase, Cassandra, Voldemort, ZooKeeper, BookKeeper, Kafka, and the list goes on and on. But is JVM fast enough for these systems?
Anyone who has ever dealt with Java probably knows at least a little bit about how JVM works. To start with, Java programs are compiled into a machine independent, un-optimized byte code. The byte code is then being interpreted by the JVM and compiled into the native code with the just-in-time (JIT) compiler. JVM adds various optimizations at the JIT compilation and these optimizations can be more aggressive than the optimizations done by a native compilers. After all, before doing these optimizations and compilation, Java has already ran the code in the interpreted mode, and it was able to collect some statistics on the branch predictions, loops and function calls to make optimization tailored not just to that specific code, but also to the specific runtime or data.
However, before Java performs all the tricks, it needs to run in a slow interpreted mode, incurring some warm-up overheads. OSDI’16 paper “Don’t Get Caught in the Cold, Warm-up Your JVM” goes into more details about what are the warm-up overheads and how they impact data-parallel distributed systems, such as Hadoop, Spark and Hive.
The paper breaks down warm-up overheads into the two categories: class loading and bytecode interpretation overheads. It investigates these overheads under different workloads on different distributed systems. Of course it is expected for warm-up to impact the freshly started JVM, but how big is the cost of warm-up? If we look at the HDFS client performance, we can see the warm-up can easily take a few seconds, depending on your task. In HDFS, writing is more complicated and involves more classes, thus Java spends more time loading all the classes. Warm-up while reading from HDFS also differs depending on whether we read in parallel or sequentially. The graph below shows warm-up costs by the task and dataset size.
We can see that the size of the operation has no impact on the overheads, meaning that small operations will spend much larger fraction of their time in warm-up, while big operations tend to amortize the warm-up costs.
It is also interesting to see when the warm-up occurs in the execution cycle. Obviously starting the client requires lots of class loading and interrupting the byte code, however starting actual jobs (for the first time?) also incurs warm-ups.
Another question one may ask is how slow actual class loading is? For HDFS sequential read, client had to load about 2000 classes, taking 1028 ms to complete. Spark was much heavier on the classes it uses and needs to load with 19,066 classes on average taking roughly 6.3 seconds in overheads. These are rather large numbers, especially if we aim at low-latency execution of our requests, however not everything is so grim.
It is important to emphasize that the paper mainly uses clients to study the warm-up, while the actual distributed system is not being studied in much of the details. To be fair, authors mention that the warm-up overheads are present on the server side as well, and in Spark the executor warm-up can add up to almost 50% of the overall warm-up time.
Dealing with Warm-up
The paper argue that these are very big overheads that must be dealt with. Authors even offer a prototype solution, a modified JVM, called HotTub, which acts as a container for many other “normal” JVMs to be reused when needed. Reusing JVM means we do not need to load classes and perform JIT. Such approach works well for short lived JVMs, i.e we have a client performing one operation and terminating. If such terminated JVM ends up in the pool for JVM reuse, we can save time on overheads next time we need another short-lived JVM.
I have to disagree, however, that these overheads are a big problem, and here is why. JVM running server side of the distributed system are warmed-up if they ran for at least some time. As such, these machines do not experience warm-up costs anymore. In this breakdown of the HDFS request, we do not see any warm-up losses occurring on the data-node side and all of the overheads were due to the warm-up of a short-lived HDFS client. This means that keeping you JVM alive and designing your workloads/client to stay up is the best solution to overcome these type of overheads.
There are few lessons I have learned from this paper. They may sound like a common sense, but nevertheless these are important points to keep in the back of your head to get the most out of your Java code.
Keep JVMs alive. Long running JVMs do not incur as many new class loads and do not need to interpret as much code, allowing the JVM to be faster.
Simpler is better. Too Many classes hurt performance on the warm-up, however do not go to extreme on the other side too. After all these are warm-up costs and not constant penalty to your performance.
Watch your external libraries. This goes together with previous point. Bringing a big library to perform one small task may not be too wise if similar-performing alternatives are available.
Taking a consistent snapshot of a distributed system is no trivial task for the reasons of asynchrony between the nodes in the system. As the state of each machine changes in response to incoming external messages or internal events, each node may produce a log of such state changes. With the log abstraction, the problem of taking a snapshot transforms into the issue of aligning the logs together and finding a consistent cut among all these logs. However, time asynchrony between the servers makes collating all the system logs difficult using just physical clocks available at each machine, because clocks tend to drift, producing some time asynchrony or time uncertainty. Various time synchronization protocols, such as NTP and PTP, exist, but perfect synchronization is still unattainable.
Retroscope is the system we designed to take unplanned, non-blocking, consistent global snapshots. Unlike other systems, Retroscope does not need to block while taking snapshot, as it does not need to wait out time uncertainty caused by the clock skews at various machines thanks to the reliance on Hybrid Logical Clocks (HLC) instead of NTP-synchronized (NTP) time.
HLC introduces causality information into the clock as messages are being exchanged between servers and provides the same causal guarantees as Lamport’s Logical Clocks (LC). More information about HLC can be found here and here.
Taking a snapshot
Retroscope achieves snapshots by adding HLC into the network communication of the Retroscoped system. Internally, Retroscope keeps a sliding window-log of past state changes along with the associated HLC timestamps at each node. This window-logs are used to facilitate the unplanned nature of taking snapshots. Snapshots are triggered by a special client that maintains the common HLC with the rest of the system. Retroscope allows for instant unplanned snapshot to be started by the initiator, such instant snapshots are guaranteed to capture the states at the time Tnow of snapshot request being issued by the initiator. Obviously, once the snapshot request message reaches the nodes, the time has advanced to Tr > Tnow.
Upon receiving the snapshot request message at Tr, each node starts taking a local snapshot. Since the system does not halt processing requests, depending on the implementation, we may arrive to a local snapshot at some time Tf >= Tr. Because our local snapshot is at the state that happened after the requested time, we need to modify it to arrive to the state at time Tnow. We use the window-log of state changes to undo all operations that happened locally after Tnow, thus arriving to a desired local snapshot. Once all nodes compute local snapshots, Retroscope is done taking a global consistent snapshot at time Tnow.
Retroscope provides more flexibility in taking unplanned snapshots. Taking instant snapshot (i.e. snapshot initiated at Tnow) requires each node to maintain only a small log of recent changes. We can, however, expand the instant snapshots and offer retrospective snapshot flexibility at the expense of growing state change log larger. With retrospective snapshots, we can offer the ability to look at the state that has already happened in the past. This functionality is handy for application debugging when there is a need to investigate the root cause of the problem after it has already happened. A distributed reset is another application that can benefit from the retrospective snapshots, as the system can be reset into a correct state after the state has been corrupted.
We have Retroscoped Voldemort key-value database to take data-snapshots. Retroscoping Voldemort took less than a 1000 lines of code for adding HLC to the network protocol, recording changes in the Retroscope window-log, and performing snapshot on Voldemort’s storage. We did the experiments on the 10-node Voldemort cluster with databases of various sizes. We have learned that keeping the window-log of state changes has very little impact on the throughput and latency when no snapshots are being taken, as seen in figure below.
Performing snapshot is non-blocking in Retroscope, because there is no need to wait out the time uncertainty. The non-blocking nature allows Voldemort to continue processing both read and write requests while the snapshot is being computed. The figure below shows throughput and latency for every second of execution while taking the snapshot on a 10,000,000 items database (each item is 100 bytes). Overall we have observed an 18% throughput and 25% latency degradation over the snapshot time, however these numbers can be improved by using a separate disk system for snapshot.
What can be done with Retroscope?
We used Retroscope to take snapshots of data on a key-value store, however the utility of snapshots can be very extensive. With powerful snapshot capabilities, such as retrospective snapshot, we can look into the past of our distributed system and search for anomalies. Retrospective snapshots can be used to restore system to the latest correct state after the state corruption. Finding such correct states is also possible with Retroscope; we can use it to take successive snapshots to check for global invariants; it can be powerful in monitoring various application level predicates. Retroscope can perform other monitoring tasks. Unlike other monitoring systems that tend to look at local state independently or isolate monitoring to a request level, Retroscope can look at global parameters of the system across every node in a consistent way. We can even use Retroscope to detect erroneous patterns in message exchange by observing what messages are sent and received and how they impact the state at each node as we go through time.
Facebook operates a huge infrastructure that needs to be constantly monitored for performance and stability. Such monitoring collects huge amounts of data that must be easily accessible to various diagnosis and anomaly detection tools in order to quickly identify and react to possible issues. Many of such parameters can be represented as real-valued time series. For example, server CPU utilization can be thought of as one of such time series: it can be sampled at some time interval and represented as a numeric value. In order to accommodate all the time series data for various parameter produced by all the server, Facebook needs a scalable, robust and fast way to store and manage time series.
Gorilla: A Fast, Scalable, In-Memory Time Series Database paper describes Facebook’s approach to the problem of managing large amounts of time series. After reading the first page of this paper, I started to ask myself whether Gorilla is truly a time series database or if it is a monitoring data cache for Facebook. To understand what is Gorilla, we must look at what data Gorilla stores and how it was designed and implemented.
Facebook’s monitoring tasks set a strict set of requirements a time series database needs to meet, which I briefly summarize in the list below:
Store real-valued monitoring data
Have fast access to 26 hours of monitoring data
Be scalable on Facebook scale, as the amount of data increases all the time
Maintain millions of time series
Fast retrieval of time series with reads in under 1 ms
Support up to 40,000 queries per second
Low granularity time series with resolution of up to 4 data point per second.
Replicated design for disaster recovery.
Gorilla Data Model
Gorilla is said to store time series data in which every data point consists of a timestamp and a single 64-bit value. This places the limitation on what kind of time series can be stored. For one, timestamp requirement makes it more difficult to deal with ordinal time series in which only the order of events matters and not the duration between them (sure, we can assign always increasing integers for timestamp to represent the order). Another limitation is inability to store multi-dimensional time series, where a single data point consists of a vector rather than a single value.
Physical time of the event is important for Facebook’s usage case of Gorilla, as the engineers need to know the time when an event or anomaly happened. Facebook engineers also do not care about recording vectors of data for each point in time, as they can record multiple values into different time series, which allows them to improve memory utilization of the system at the expense of versatility. This makes Gorilla very specialized tool from the standpoint of data it can handle, as the data-model is dictated by the overall requirement for monitoring task on Facebook scale.
Gorilla Design and Implementation
Obviously, Gorilla was designed and built to meet the requirements outlined earlier. Similar to how data model was derived to achieve the requirements, the rest of the system also sacrifices the generalizability for the sake of meeting the monitoring goals. Below I try to look at various portions of the system and see how universal or flexible the design of Gorilla is.
Compressed In-Memory Storage
Requiring the time series retrieval in under 1 ms means that data needs to reside in memory of the machines composing the Gorilla deployment. This time requirement most likely also imposes the limitation of only 4 point/second, as the system needs to keep individual the time series small enough to be able to retrieve them in entirety quickly enough. The 26 hours of data is needed for monitoring tasks at Facebook, meaning that a single time series will not exceed the size of 6240 points.
Despite the small size of individual time series, Facebook generates millions of such time series, so the memory consumption of the entire cluster is very high. Some very clever algorithms are used to compact each time series individually. Gorilla compresses both the timestamps and values for each data point.
The timestamp compression uses a delta-of-delta technique. The compression starts by finding a difference Δtn-1,n between the new timestamp tn and a previous timestamp tn-1: Δtn-1,n = tn – tn-1. This difference can already be represented with less bits then the original timestamp. However, the time series used in the monitoring at Facebook tend to happen at regular intervals, allowing even greater compression by finding the difference D between delta’s instead of differences between events. In other words, system does not code the changes in timestamps of the events as it would do with a single delta, but it uses the differences between the intervals between the events: D = Δtn, n-1 – Δtn-1, n-2. If everything operates correctly, most events happen at regular, constant intervals, resulting in 0 difference between them. This 0 difference can be encoded with just one bit of ‘0’. However, when some irregularity happens, the difference between intervals can still be represented with just a few bits. Computing the delta-of-deltas is shown in the example below:
The binary representation for D also plays a crucial role in compression and must be tweaked based on the application and the frequency of point in the time series. In Facebook’s monitoring case if delta-of-deltas D is between [-63, 64], it is encoded with ‘10’ followed by 7 bits of difference value for a total size of 9 bits; if D is between [-255, 256], value D is prepended with ‘110’ bits, resulting in a total size of 12 bits, this patterns continues to cover larger D values.
Data compression is achieved through comparing two values and finding a substring of bits that changed from one point to the next one. Since the system looks for only one such substring, it can encode the offset if such substring from the beginning of the 64-bit value, and the actual substring containing the changes, thus eliminating the need to store the prefix and suffix to the changed substring, as these bits can be taken from previous value.
This compression scheme favors the scenarios in which the value stays constant from one point to another, as constant value can be represented with just one bit. This is extremely useful for Facebook monitoring in which many of the values stay constant or show small changes that can be efficiently compressed. Combined with time stamp compression, Gorilla shows remarkable reduction in the average size of a data point:
This performance is however not universal and will not scale well to other time series outside of the Facebook monitoring use case. In both timestamp and value compression, in order to read a data point, system needs to read its predecessor, this requires the compression to run in non-overlapping windows and reset itself after some time interval. Having windows too large will require more compute resources to read the data point.
The timestamp compression struggles from a number of shortcoming. It operates on a second level resolution which allows to ignore small millisecond level variations and still encode the points with such variations as having no difference in the intervals. This works well for when we can record a maximum of 4 points in one minute, however many application, such as music, audio, or sensors produce data at much faster rate, requiring a more precise timestamp resolution on a millisecond or even nanosecond scale and not on a second scale. Requiring more precision from timestamps will undermining the benefits that can be achieved with timestamp compression. Additionally, if the intervals between the time series are not constant or nearly constant and tend to change frequently, the efficiency of compression will also dramatically degrade.
The value compression cannot handle vector time series without making it more complicated and requiring constant size vectors. It also works best when the values do not change by much. Great changes on values may lead to no compression between two points at all.
Gorilla is a sharded system that assigns each server to handle a subset of the time series currently stored in the system. Since two shards share no data in common, growing the system to accommodate more time series is as easy as simply adding more servers and updating shard mapping to make these servers available for new time series. Gorilla tolerate machine failures by writing the data to a replicated network storage, although it does not attempt to make storage and memory consistent and may lose the information buffered for writing upon a node failure. Gorilla can handle more disastrous events as well, since it was designed to tolerate an entire region failure by streaming every data point to two different data centers. Similar to disk persistence, the system does not try to ensure consistency between the two regions. Such possible inconsistencies may lead to data loss, and dealing with incomplete data is left to the client.
Gorilla query model appears to be very simplistic, as it simply allows to retrieve time series, given the time series unique name and the time range. The rest of the processing is left to the client systems. Such retrieval approach is very fast, as it simply requires locating the server responsible for the time series, uncompressing it and returning to the client. Such approach is most likely tuned for specific monitoring needs at Facebook and it provides very good latency as show below:
In my master’s thesis I have explored more complicated querying patterns for time series. In particular, one common query pattern is similarity search across many time series or across different parts of the same time series. Many approaches exist to answer the k Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) types of queries that search for k most similar fragments to the input query. Some of these approaches, such as Dynamic Time Warping are very difficult to index and are not suitable for database application, but there are methods that can be used for indexing and database application. I adapted and modified R*-tree index for being stored in the HBase database along with the actual time series data, and as such my system prototype was able to perform k-NN queries (with Euclidean distance similarity) on a disk backed system. Of course there were a number of limitations, such bad scalability when searching for large patterns without the use of dimensionality reduction and overall low latency of searches due to relying on HBase for index. However, in-memory approaches can have fast indexes, and can provide more sophisticated querying patterns to answer the similarity or anomaly detection type of queries. Finding similar sub sequences with Gorilla will require fetching the time series we are interested and exhaustively searching for patterns in them.
There are many motivations for k-NN search in time series, ranging from medical to engineering to entertainment. For example, a system records person’s ECG data and performs a search on new patterns it receives. If it finds a similar pattern to some known cases that lead to heart failure, the system can notify the doctor before the problem can develop further. And of course there are other types of interesting queries that can be done on time series, as such I strongly believe that Gorilla’s query model may be inadequate for some uses.
A Few Concluding Words
Facebook’s Gorilla is a fascinating piece of engineering, it achieves very good compression of time series data, high scalability and fast retrieval time. However, I am not sure one can call it a time series database, as all of its achievements result from making the system more and more specialized for a specific application – monitoring server/system parameters at Facebook. It high compression is the result of low time resolution and low update data update frequency in the time series used for monitoring. It’s query model is designed for fast retrieval, but it is very simplistic and offloads the time series processing, pattern matching and anomaly detection to the client applications. Gorilla’s data is also very specialized: it is single-dimensional, with infrequent updates, small changes to the value from one point to another, and constant update rate. This data is very specialized in nature and can hardly be thought of as a good representation for all other time series data. All of the limitations and compromises made to achieve Facebook’s requirements for a specific use case make me think that Gorilla is not a TSDB by any means. It is rather just a cache for infrequently changing monitoring data.
Few month ago I showcased how a single server of Voldemort key-value store sounds. Sonification is a valid way to monitor systems, and has been used a lot in real applications. Geiger counter would be one of the most well-known examples of a sonified application. In some cases sonification may be the preferred form of representing information, as other forms surprisingly may not work as well for human perception. Even visualization of information is often not as good as sonification. Take the same Geiger counter example; research has shown that visual radiation level monitors do not perform quite as well as the sound ones as people tend to be distracted from the display to perform other tasks. Even visual and audio hybrids do not alert users of high radiation levels as good as simple audio counter.
As an example of a hybrid audio-visual system for Voldemort, I have built a small “traffic-light monitor” that changes colors and beeps differently depending on what action is performed by the server. The rig is built with Arduino and simply plugs to the USB of the machine running Voldemort server. Below is a short video of how it operates:
The green light lights up when server handles a “get” operation. Yellow light is for “put” requests and red light is for “get version” commands. As can be see, writing to Voldemort requires two operations, “get version” and “put” and they happen so quickly that Arduino is barely capable to light up the LEDs.
P.S. “Traffic light monitor” is not to be taken seriously, it is rather a silly example to show that there are plenty of ways to monitor a system or represent system’s logs.
After looking more at Pivot Tracing tool described in my earlier post, I asked myself about the limitations of such monitoring approach. Pivot tracing is not a universal tool, so it appears that there are few problems it does not address well enough.
The basic idea of the Pivot Tracing is to collect the information about the request as the request propagates through the system. The image below shows a partial illustration of request propagation along with information collection at pivot points.
As the request passes through a pivot point in system A, we can collect some parameters, xA and yA, and use the baggage mechanism to send these parameters further along the request. Once the request reaches next pivot point, say in system B, we can also collect some information zB on that system. Note that system B does not have access to xA and yA directly without the Pivot Tracing tool, but thanks to the baggage mechanism, we have these parameters available at pivot point in system B.
Why is it important? It is fairly boring when we look at only one request trace, however when we look at all the requests happening in the system over some time interval things start to get a lot more exciting.
We can aggregate the data over all the requests to have a system-wide statistics reported to the system user, and have parameters from one system propagate to another system with the baggage allowing much more complex requests aggregations. Having xA and yA at the system B enables us to aggregate on parameters in B, such as zB over different values of xA or yA. For example, I can now compute the sum of zB for all requests going through system B for different values of xA. This would not have been possible without having information propagate with the baggage from one pivot point to another. Another scenario would be aggregating variable z across both systems B and C for different values of parameters coming from A.
Aggregation of requests is extremely important, as it enables the system-wide monitoring of the distributed application, instead of looking at individual request traces. However, is this aggregation correct? Does it have errors? And what can cause the errors? Looking back at Figure 2, we see many requests executing in parallel, these requests are causally independent, so how does the system know these requests indeed happened between T0 and T2? Time skew between servers can impact the accuracy of reporting, especially if some requests run on disjointed set of servers (they do not share any common servers). Is this a big problem for Pivot Tracing? I think in most cases it is ok, as long as time skew is kept within the reasonable bounds. If the monitoring is run continuously over some period of time, missing some requests in one window will only make them counted in the other time-window.
Pivot Tracing is not capable to answer all kinds of queries. With the example above, we were aggregating the requests over some time period, but what if we want to know something about the system at exact instance? What if user desires to learn something about the system at time T1 (Figure 2). This is not possible with Pivot Tracing tool. For one, we cannot even be sure that T1 is the same time at all the requests due to the time skew. Second, even if we can guarantee exact time synchronization, there is no guarantee that all requests will be at the correct Pivot Point to collect such information at T1. In other words, Pivot Tracing cannot provide a user with consistent global information about the system at any exact point of time.
Instantaneous information may be useful for debugging and monitoring systems. For example, recently I had a need to find out how many nodes perform BDB JE log compaction in my Voldemort cluster at the same time. The compaction is not triggered directly by the requests, instead a separate local thread periodically checks if compaction is needed. As such, with a Pivot Tracing style tool, it would have been impossible for me to even instrument the Pivot Points as no request actually goes and triggers the compaction. In addition, the time skew would not have allowed me to know for sure whether the compaction was running at all nodes concurrently or it simply appears so from the misaligned time. What I need is a consistent global snapshot of parameters in my Voldemort cluster…
Recently at our lab we discussed a fun little project of making distributed systems “play” music. The idea of sonifying a distributed application can be of some benefit for debugging and maintenance, since people have natural ability in recognizing patterns. Of course developer or systems administrators can analyze the logs of their systems and study the patterns that way, but listing to patterns and hearing the changes in such patterns is something we can do in the background, probably without taxing our entire attention span.
So how does a distributed system sound? And what can we learn by listening to it? Here is a 4.5 minute clip of a single Voldemort server playing its song.
Each message request type coming to the server was assigned a different pitch, with the note duration roughly corresponding to the time it took to fulfill the request. Of course, the recording was slowed down compared to the original execution of the node, with the entire 4 minutes and 37 seconds of audio representing just a coupe of seconds of real-time operation.
The audio has been recorded under a static workload of read and write operations, but there are few things that we can definitely hear about Voldemort’s operation even without the workload variations. The most obvious one is that the first half a minute of the audio is mostly silence. This is something I observed from the logs earlier as well, as Voldemort takes some time to get to its paces. As the execution progresses, we can definitely hear different operations happening at somewhat constant rate. In the second half of the audio, we can hear a few “hick-ups” as well as some louder and more forceful sounds for the requests that took longer to process. This, however was normal operation of Voldemort node, and introducing some problems into the system, such as network congestion or some machine failure will most definitely impact the sounds of this node.
What about making the sound of the entire distributed system? This becomes a trickier problem, as now we need to play multiple streams for all the distributed components in our system at once. Such components can be located on different physical servers and different racks and even different datacenters. However, for us to play the “true” sound of the system while preserving the causality of events, we need to be able to precisely synchronize and align the streams from various servers, accounting for any time skew and clock imprecisions.
Additionally, with multiple servers “playing” at once it may be more difficult for people to comprehend the patterns and the changes to such patterns.
Debugging can be a nightmare for software engineers, it is even more so in the distributed systems that span many machines in potentially more than one datacenter. Unfortunately, many of the debugging and monitoring techniques for such large system do not differ much from the methods used to debug and monitor simple single-machine software. Logs are still one of the most common way to gain the insights into the operation of the software, and these logs are typically produced my each machine independently, making it next to impossible to find causal relationships between evens happening on different servers. In addition, logs must be installed in advance at development time, and altering the information collected after the system deployment can be problematic and will require additional developer time.
Pivot Tracing tries to address these issues. Pivot Tracing allows to dynamically alter what information is being collected without having to stop the system being monitored. It also introduces a happened-before join operation that allows engineers to correlate events based on their happened-before relations to each other. Despite the ability to dynamically reconfigure the system to collect different information, it still requires expert knowledge of distributed environment being monitored. Before a system can be used, engineers need to define tracepoints, or places in the code of the underlying system where monitoring and logging instrumentation can be dynamically installed by Pivot Tracing. Engineers also need to define (1) what parameters can be extracted and logged by the system, however defining the parameters system can collect is not limited to pre-launch or configuration stage, these log parameters can be modified at any time during the life-cycle of the system Pivot Tracing monitors.
Pivot Tracing users use a high-level query language to request monitoring/debugging information they need. The query is compiled into an intermediate representation called advice. Different parameters can be collected at various tracepoints, so the advice carries the instructions to each relevant tracepoint regarding what instrumentation or monitoring needs to be installed at each tracepoint and what information is to be collected and propagated in the system. The data is collected with the execution path flow of the system, as execution passes through a relevant tracepoint (4) some parameters are collected and send down the execution path in a baggage (5). In addition tracepoints (4) can emit tuples (6) that are being sent to Pivot Tracing front end (7) will become available to the user (8).
A happened-before join, denoted by “->”, is a very powerful tool within Pivot Tracing for capturing causality of events. Let’s look at the following query example:
This query sets the anticipated execution path of the request. At first, a request needs to pass through a ClientProtocol and followed by the tracepoint at incrBytesRead. In the example above, we are only interested in the events that go from ClientProtocols to incrBytesRead, and any other execution paths will not work for this query. Since the query runs in parts along the execution path of the request, Pivot Tracing can easily capture happened-before relationship between events by following the request within the system. Advice compiled from the query has capabilities for evaluating messages coming in the baggage from prior tracepoints to process the happened-before joins. If the tracepoint appears earlier in the execution path, then the events at that tracepoint will happen before the events at the later tracepoint.
But what appoint non-linear execution paths? What if we have segments of code that execute in parallel? The paper does not talk about this in great details, but Pivot Tracing should still work well. For instance, if two threads are parallel and do not communicate with each other, then the events in this two threads are concurrent, however once the two threads start to communicate, the baggage from earlier tracepoints will be transmitted along these communication channels, allowing Pivot Tracing to carry out happened-before joins as usual. Consider the following example authors provide:
Query A -> B produces a1b2 and a2b2 results, however there is no a1b1, because at the time b1 was running, it had no baggage from the thread running a1, so both a1 and b1 are concurrent.
Pivot Tracing has been implemented in Java and tested against Hadoop software stack. Authors claim to have found a bug in HDFS by using Pivot Tracing, however by the time a bug was found with Pivot Tracing, it has already been reported by others. Nevertheless, it is impressive that the system was able to help find the problem by just executing a few small queries.
The overhead of pivot tracing is fairly small, and mainly consist of packing, unpacking and transmitting tuples from one tracepoint to another. As such, when no monitoring is required, the system can be left enabled with no queries running resulting in negligible overhead (PivotTracing Enabled row in the table below).
Under a stress test on the HDFS stack, the overhead reached almost 16% for certain operations. It is important to understand that some queries may result in bigger baggage transmitted and more tuples packed and unpacked to the baggage, thus, I think, it is be a good idea to test and optimize queries in staging environment before running it on the production system. This however defeats one of the bigger advantages of Pivot Tracing – its ability to dynamically adjust to different monitoring scenarios.
Authors do not talk much about scalability to system with a larger number of nodes or systems with various level of communication between different nodes. It is also interesting to see how big of a penalty will a WAN deployment incur? After all, the main overhead of the Pivot Tracing is baggage propagation and having to piggyback all that additional data to messages along the communication paths between the nodes can have severe negative effect for systems that are capable to saturate their bandwidth limitations.
Despite Pivot Tracing authors advocating against the traditional logs for debugging, their system is still fundamentally a logging system, albeit a lot more sophisticated. Users can use Pivot Tracing to log only the information they need along with some causal relationship between these log pieces. Despite this, I believe there are still cases when a traditional logging approach can be of more use than Pivot Tracing, namely debugging rare and subtle bugs that can happen only under certain set of conditions. With Pivot Tracing users can install instrumentation after such rare bug has occurred, but there is no guarantee that it will happen again anytime soon, yet the overall system pays the penalty overheads of the monitoring. In this context, traditional logs can provide more immediate benefit, as they allow engineers to look back in time at the system execution.
With the presence of back-in-time snapshot capability, we can revert back to the past states of the system and replay back the changes along with newly installed instrumentation for monitoring, but overheads of this may be enormous for a large scale distributed system. Is there a way around this? Can we look back in time and identify the bugs, data corruption or performance issues without paying a significant performance price?
Linearizability, the strongest form of consistency, can be very important in large scale data storage systems, although many such systems either do not implement linearizability or do not fully expose serializable operation to the clients. The later type of systems can maintain linearizability for internal operations that occur between servers, but do not provide the same consistency to the clients.
The authors of the paper provide a linearizability framework, called RIFL, suitable for use in existing non-linearizable RPC based distributed system. The framework allows to convert existing RPC into linearizable ones in just a few lines of code with minimal impact on the overall performance. The paper only discusses RPC-based systems, since according to the paper, linearizability requires a request-response protocol to operate. I think it may be possible to sue RIFL-like system for message passing approaches as long as receiving each message eventually produces an ack to the sender.
In order to better understand RIFL and how it is beneficial in the data-store system, we need to talk about Linearizability. According to the paper, Linearizable operations appear to happen instantaneously and only once at same point in the execution of a system. It is important to understand that in a real system an operation can take some time to execute and can potential fail midway through its execution. Linearizable system must make it appear to all its clients as if the operation happened right away. The ability to execute operations only once is another important point, as many existing systems retry execution of operation upon failure. Authors say such operations follow at-least-once semantics, whereas linearizable operations have exactly-once semantics. In order to achieve certain consistency guarantees, many existing systems use idempotent operations which produce the same outcome regardless of how many times such operations have been executed. Authors show an example in which running such operation more than once can break the linearizability after a certain failure.
Example of at-least-once semantic breaking linearizability.
In this case we have two clients interacting with a single server. Client B writes 2 to the server but it crashes before the server has a chance to respond. When client A reads the data, it will get the value written by B. Later client A can write a different value, while client B is recovering from the failure. Once client B as back up, it does not know that its previous operation has succeeded, so it retries it and overwrites the later value written by A. Authors do not mention how likely such example to occur in practice, but given a large scale of the system with thousands or even millions clients, it will be unwise to discount the possibility of such failure. Nothing is mentioned whether any of the existing data-store systems address the issue.
RIFL framework allows the conversion of the system relaying on the at-least-once RPC operations into linearizable exactly-once operations. The main idea behind RIFL is storing the results of the RPC execution, so that in case of a retry of an RPC call the system could have used already known result without having to re-run the procedure. The results of the RPC invocation are stored on the completion records, and each such record is associated with each unique RPC. This ensures the exactly-once operation of the RPCs in the system, but also opens up a number of problems that had to be solved.
High level representation of RIFL logic
In order to operate properly, the system must be able to detect retry calls. In order to make such detection easy, each RPC is assigned a 128-bit ID number consisting of a 64-bit client ID and 64-bit sequence at such client. If an operation is to be retried by the client, it must use the same ID. Before execution of an RPC, the server will check if it is aware of a completion record for such RPC and if it does not exist, RPC continues, but if a completion record is present then the server will return the results stored in the completion record instead of running an RPC.
Migrating completion records is essential in the event of a failure, as the system relies on the presence of such records to make a decision on whether an RPC needs to run. From time to time, data can migrated from one server to another, especially in case of a server crash. The new server must have the completion records available to it after the migration, so each completion records is attached to one of the data-objects being modified by an RPC, so that moving the object will also move all the completion records for RPCs acting on the object. Unfortunately, authors do not explain in detail how the migration is made, as this part is probably left out to the underlying system. It is very likely that completion records also get replicated with the objects they belong to for durability reasons, although no mechanism for such replication is described as well, so it is worth to assume that the completion record replication is left out to the underlying system.
Overtime many completion records are going to be created for each object, increasing the storage requirements and the bandwidth used for replication and migration of objects. In order to improve resource utilization, a garbage collection mechanism for old completion records was devised. In RIFL a completion record can get removed from the system if a client acknowledges that it knows of a successful RPC execution and will not retry it in the future. Such acknowledgments are piggybacked to the new RPC requests and as a result incur minimal overhead. In case of a client failure, no acknowledgement will be sent to the server, causing certain completion records to persist. In order to deal with this problem, RIFL uses lease manager to grant leases to all the clients. In case a client lease is not renewed, all completion records for the client will be purged. It is not clear how a centralized lease system can impact the overall performance of a system implementing RIFL. A time synchronization between the client, lease manager and a server is used to reduce the need to communicate: the server will contact lease manager only when it estimates that the client lease will expire soon. This portion of a lease protocol raises some questions about the reliability of the lease sub-system. What is going to happen if time skew is greater than the server estimates for? If the server time is ahead of lease manager time, server will start issuing more check requests to the lease manager, but if it is lagging behind the lease manager time, than the server may think lease is still good while the client may have already been dead. I think the worst case scenario is that GC does not collect all dead completion records, which may not be of a big immediate problem, but may eventually lead to the excess memory consumption by the server applications.
Transactions with RIFL
Authors implemented a transaction system using RIFL for linearizability on top of RAMCloud, a distributed, in memory key-value datastore. A two-phase commit protocol similar to Sinfonia is used to implement transactions. In the first phase of the protocol, usually called a prepare phase, a set of read, write or delete commands is sent to servers and each server upon receiving prepare determines if it can proceed with the commit. If all servers can commit, then a second phase finalizes the transaction. RIFL makes crash recovery simpler compared to Sinfonia. Since each prepare operation is linearizable, retires of the prepare will not cause and adversary effects. Upon a more serious crash, recovery manager can learn if the results of the prepare operation without the knowledge of the original commit commands, and if all prepares have succeeded, it can finalize the transaction; in case of some prepare failures, transaction is simply aborted.
One important point authors make in the paper is about traditional way of implementing linearizability on datastores and how it differs from their implementation. In the existing system, linearizability is implemented on top of a transaction system and according to the authors this approach creates more cumbersome transaction mechanism. With RIFL, transactions were implemented on top of a linearizability layer, which authors claim is a better approach.
RIFL was implemented and evaluated in RAMCloud. Overall, authors claim only 5% reduction in latency for RIFL linearizable write RPCs compared to the original writes. No significant difference in throughout was observed when using RIFL.
Added overhead of RIFL to the RAMCloud system. Left is latency, right is throughput.
Transaction performance was evaluated with TPC-C benchmark typically used for performance evaluation of Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) systems. RIFL RAMCloud was compared against H-store database. Both system are in-memory databases but they different significantly in their purpose and typical use cases. As a matter of fact, RIFL RAMCloud solution had to be specifically implemented for TPC-C benchmark. When comparing the two systems, authors found out that RAMCloud with RIFL significantly outperforms H-store in all tests. I am a bit skeptical about these results, at least without more knowledge about how RAMCloud was used to make TPC-C benchmark work with it and whether the implementation of RIFL & RAMCloud interface for TPC-C benchmark was specifically tailored for the tests performed by TPC-C. It may have been a good idea to compare the system against other transaction protocols implemented in RAMCloud, such as the ones based on consensus.
When reading the paper I thought that the idea of caching the results of RPC calls is a very straightforward and simple and I am surprised it has not been exploited before. Yes, store such cache presents a few challenges, mainly in memory management of the overall system, as the cache size can grow large, but as shown in RIFL, these are not very big challenges and can be solved with simple protocols and existing tools, such as ZooKeeper. Authors claim that implementing transactions on top of linearizability layer is a better and faster approach. Transactions (mini-transactions?) implementation became easier with RIFL, but I am not sure the performance benefit is obvious. On my opinion performance comparison with H-store seems somewhat unfair.
In the previous posts I summarized Raft and EPaxos. These two algorithms are used to achieve consensus in the distributed system, so for example when we deal with replicated state machines, these algorithms allow each replica to be an exact, consistent copy of each other. So, it is logical to assume that Inconsistent Replication will not produce the same replicas all the time, so our state machines can end up in different states. Why would we want to have a replicated state machine with various copies potentially being in different states? According to the authors of the paper it is faster than consistent replication, yet can still be used in some applications, such as transaction commit. I think the usage of IR will not be as straightforward as using consistent replications, since users of IR must also design their applications in such a way that tolerates the inconsistent state of the nodes.
IR does not guarantee the order in which each command is executed by replicas, thus replicas can reach different states unless the operations are independent of each other. The figure below illustrates hot this can happen.
Figure 1. Replicas in inconsistent state. (a) Two requests C1 and C2 are being sent to replicas at the same, but the requests reach replicas in different orders. (b) Requests are logged and executed in the order they have been received leading to an inconsistent state.
Since replicas can be in different states, IR cannot guarantee that recovering from failures can preserve the value or the states of each recovered operation. Because of this, IR has two types of guarantees it can provide upon recovering from a failure. If a client does not need to have an ability to recover the value of each operation, it can use IR in an inconsistent operation mode that only guarantees the recovery of only the fact that an operation occurred for up to f failures in a system of 2f+1 replicas. Inconsistent operation mode does not allow to recover the value of the operation. In consensus operation mode, IR can preserve both the command and a result of such command for up to f failures. In this mode, the result of an operation is the result a majority of replicas report for such operation, if such majority exist. Consensus operation may fail if not enough replicas report the same result for the operation, in which case IR protocol retries. Consensus operations also need to have floor(3/2f)+1 replicas agree to be finalized. IR protocol will also retry the operation until it finalizes. It seems like only finalized consensus operation can be recovered with the results of the operation, and not all consensus operation can be finalized since they can timeout after getting the majority but before reaching the consensus on floor(3/2f)+1 replicas.
This notion of retrying the operations until they eventually succeed makes me question whether it is a good solution especially under various kinds of loads. If the system deals with mostly independent requests it may not be difficult to reach consensus in consensus operation mode, but if there are lot of contention between requests, the system may just be stuck retrying all the operations without doing much of a useful work.
I am not going mention IR recovery mechanism described in the paper, but it is worth noting that during the recovery the entire system blocks and stops responding to new requests. The process is initialized by a recovering replica communicating to all other nodes, and once each node learns that some other replica is recovering from a failure it stops processing the requests until the protocol is finished and normal operation can resume.